Indian History – Mahavira

550 BC

Vardhamma Mahavira was not the founder of Jainism, but he reformed and refined previous teachings of the Jaina tradition. Mahavira was born in 599 BC in Kaundinyapura near modern Patna. Scholars debate the birth date and place. Some claim it to be as late as 490 BC in Kundapura near Vaishali or in Vaishali, which is in present day Bihar. Mahavira was born to a high-ranking family and received an education fit for a nobleman. He learned about literature, art, philosophy, and military and administrative sciences. Mahavira married a princess named Yasoda and had a daughter named Anojja. When Mahavira was 28, his parents died, and Mahavira wanted to abandon everything and everyone.

To please his brother, Mahavira decided to stay at his home until the age of 30. For those two years, Mahavira practiced self-discipline and gave up luxuries by giving charity to beggars.

When Mahavira left his family at the age of 30, he also gave up all property, wealth, and pleasures. He left his home and mediated, fasted, and went without water. After all this, Mahavira tore out his hair and wandered naked with a piece of cloth on his shoulder. Mahavira essentially became a homeless man. This did not bother Mahavira, because he was going to teach the Jain Religion. Vardhamma Mahavira became the 24th Tirthankara or “ford-maker” of the Jain or Jaina Religion.

Mahavira traveled naked to various parts of northern India, teaching and preaching. These parts included Bihar, western Bengal, and western Uttar Pradesh. Mahavira attracted all kinds of people, including kings, queens, rich, poor and both men and women.

Mahavira taught that the center of right conduct was the five great vows of which he preached until his death. Four were from the previous teacher Parshva, and the fifth was his own. The vows were (asteya) to not take anyone’s private possessions, (satya) to always tell the truth, (aparigraha) to not own any property, (ahimsa) to not injure or annoy any living thing, and (brahmacarya) to have complete celibacy. Parshva let his followers wear clothing, but Mahavira did not want his followers to wear any. In this, Mahavira was very faithful to his teachings. The most noticeable extent of these vows was that Mahavira let vermin inhabit his body, because it was wrong to kill any living creature. Mahavira vowed to neglect his body and agreed to suffer all things that could happen. “Mahavira taught 73 methods for exertion in goodness by which many creatures, who believed in and accepted them, studied, learned, understood, and practiced them, and acted according to them, obtained perfection, enlightenment, deliverance, beatitude, and an end to all misery”. This was the very extreme form of the vow. He gave up all he had and was celibate.

Mahavira’s quest, for himself and others, was to finally reach nirvana or salvation. Nirvana is the attainment of the blissful state of one’s self and of total freedom from the cycle of birth, death, life, pain, and misery. The final step for Mahavira and all that follow him was the final removal of the karma or self. Mahavira attained nirvana the 13th year of his new Jain life. This happened while he was fasting, not drinking water for two days, and meditating. Not only did Mahavira attain nirvana but he also attained kevala. Kevala is the absolute knowledge and is the highest awareness.

Vardhamma Mahavira finally died in 527 BC at the age of 72. Mahavira is believed to have become Siddha, never to go through the cycle of birth and death. Mahavira was able to rid himself of karma by destroying it and won his soul’s salvation by never returning to earth.

Source: http://www.indhistory.com

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Indian History – Vedic Era

[1200-500 BC]

 Rig Veda

The Rig-Veda is a collection of over 1,000 hymns, which contain the mythology of the Hindu gods, and is considered to be one of the foundations of the Hindu religion. While the Rig is the oldest of the Vedas, there are three other Vedas. There is the Sama Veda, which is the “knowledge of chants” or a number of basic hymns recited at sacrifices.  There is also the Yajur Veda or “knowledge of rites” which serve basically as a “how to make sacrifices” book.  The final Veda is the Athara Veda, this Veda represents the knowledge given by Athara who was a sage.  These Vedas were passed on or all.

 

Source: http://www.indhistory.com/

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Histroy of India: Ancient India History – Harappa Civilisation

Indus Valley civilizations covering approx 1/2 million miles of Northern Indian subcontinent is the largest ancient civilization in history till now. Since both stone and copper are used it is a chalcolithicivil.The Indus Valley people are highly artistic and skilled.Their chief features include a highly organized urban setup and a strong economy.

The IVC economy is flourishing with extensive cultivation of wheat, barley. The Indus river is used for transport, weights are all very accurate and highly standardized and traders have own personalised seals.

Harappa Civilisation – Fashion

The exact origins of the IVC people is disputed but appears to belong to four ethnic types including the Protoaustioloids, Mediterraneans, Mongoloids and Alpines. People enjoy a comfortable life with a variety of luxuries like ornaments in agate and gold, cosmetics (kajal) and elaborate toys for children. Painting on pottery is skillful and covers various themes while small sculptures in terracotta (animals, toys), soft stone (bearded man) and metal jewels abound.

The greatest artistic skill is in the seals. These engravings of animals, flowers and other symbols have artistic, religious and economic value .

Harappa Civilisation – Town Planning

The city of Mohenjo Daro is testimony to the town planning activities of the IVC. Cities are divided into lower dwellings & the Citadel which houses important buildings. The streets form a grid system and are of modulated width. Bricks of fixed sizes are used for building while stone and wood are also used.Municipal authorities who are responsible for the whole of the valley also regularly maintain a highly efficient drainage system.Buildings in the lower area are rather monotonous, being mainly functional rather than decorative. But many houses are 2 storeyed.

Harappa Civilisation – Architecture

Great Bath: Mohenjo Daro has a sophisticated system of water supply & drainage and its brickwork, is highly functional and the amazing part of it is – that it is completely waterproof. The granaries are also intelligently constructed, with strategic airducts and platform are divided into units.
The Dock at Lothal is to be used for inland & foreign trade.

 

Harappa Civilisation – Religion

The culture and religion of the IVC overlap and perhaps repetitive symbols such as the pipal leaf and swastika have religious significance. Human dieties include a “proto type of Shiva” and a mother goddess. Animal symbols such as the bull and unicorn and those of tree spirits and water dieties are also common.

These are images from the Harappan culture which existed in the Indus River Valley and which reached its peak around 2600 BC, shortly after the development of urban societies in Mesopotamia and Egypt.  Additional information can be found on the ” India and South Asia ” Chronology.

Source: http://www.indhistory.com/

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

History of India

Dear Readers I would like to explore the Indian History, that’s why I’m starting this episode. Now I’m giving the general History of the India, I will give more history to next posts.

Thank you

Source: http://www.indhistory.com/

India’s history and culture is ancient and dynamic, spanning back to the beginning of human civilization. Beginning with a mysterious culture along the Indus River and in farming communities in the southern lands of India. The history of india is one puncuated by constant integration with migrating peoples and with the diverse cultures that surround India. Placed in the center of Asia, history in india is a crossroads of cultures from China to Europe, and the most significant Asian connection with the cultures of Africa.

India’s history is more than just a set of unique developments in a definable process; it is, in many ways, a microcosm of human history itself, a diversity of cultures all impinging on a great people and being reforged into new, syncretic forms. IndHistory.com brings you the india’s history starting from ancient history of india to modern indian history. Shown below is the india timeline starting from 3000 BC of ancient indus valley civilization and harappa civilization to 1000 AD of Chola Dynasty of ancient history of india.

Indian History in Short :

The History of India begins with the birth of the Indus Valley Civilization in such sites as Mohenjo-Daro, Harappa, and Lothal, and the coming of the Aryans. These two phases are usually described as the pre-Vedic and Vedic perio ds. It is in the Vedic period that Hinduism first arose: this is the time to which the Vedas are dated.

In the fifth century, large parts of India were united under Ashoka. He also converted to Buddhism, and it is in his reign that Buddhism spread to o ther parts of Asia. It is in the reign of the Mauryas that Hinduism took the shape that fundamentally informs the religion down to the present day. Successor states were more fragmented.

Islam first came to India in the eighth century, and by the 11th century had firmly established itself in India as a political force; the North Indian dynasties of the Lodhis, Tughlaqs, and numerous others, whose remains are visible in Delhi and scattered elsewhere around North India, were finally succeeded by the Mughal empire, under which India once again achieved a large measure of political unity.

The European presence in India dates to the seventeenth century, and it is in the latter part of this century that the Mughal empire began to disintegrate, paving the way for regional states. In the contest for supremacy, the English emerged ‘victors’, their rule marked by the conquests at the battlefields of Plassey and Buxar.

The Rebellion of 1857-58, which sought to restore Indian supremacy, was crushed; and with the subsequent crowning of Victoria as Empress of India, the incorporation of India into the empire was complete. Successive campaigns had the effect of driving the British out of India in 1947.

Ancient India

The Indus Valley Civilization existed in between 3000-1500 BC while the earlier Kot Diji cultures, of the pre-Indus period, existed in the period of approximately 3300-2800 BC. Harappa and the city of Mohenjo-Daro were the greatest achievements of the Indus valley civilization. These cities are well known for their impressive, organized and regular layout.

Then came Aryans who composed these evocative hymns to nature and celebrated life exuberantly referred to themselves as Aryas usually anglicised as Aryan meaning ‘noble’. The 6th Century B.C. was the period of Magadh Kingdom. Chandragupta Maurya ousted the oppressive ruler of Magadh to find his own dynasty that existed from 322 – 298 B.C.

The most famous Maurya King Ashoka the Great ruled from 273 – 232 B.C over a large kingdom stretching from Kashmir and Peshawar in the North and Northwest to Mysore in the South and Orissa in the East. He after witnessing the carnage at the battle field of Kalinga (269 B.C.) in Orissa, dedicated himself to Dharmma ( righteousness ).

In the subsequent centuries, after the Ashoka empire disintegrated, India suffered a series of invasions, and often fell under the spell of foreign rulers – Indo Bactrians, the Sakas and others. After the next 400 years of instability the Guptas established their kingdom.

Kalidas, the famous Sanskrit poet and dramatist, author of Abhijnana Shankuntalam, Kumarsambhavam and Meghadutam is believed to have adorned the Gupta court. Also the great mathematicians like Aryabhatta and astronomers like Varahmihir lived during this period. The dazzling wall paintings of the Ajanta caves too are traced back to this era.

Cholas, Pandayas and Pallavas ruled over the southern part of India during the medieval period of India�s history. Cholas ruled the territory of Deccan (today the districts of Thanjavur and Tiruchirapally) while the Pandyas reined around present day Tirunelvelli and Madurai.

Pallavas of Kanchi rose to prominence in the 4th Century A.D. and ruled unchallenged for about four hundred years. The Nayanar and Alvar saint poets belong to this period. The gemlike shore temples at Mahabalipuram date to this period. The Cholas overthrew the Pallavas were in the 9th Century and regained political primacy in south India. The 15th Century saw the decline of the Pandyas.

Medieval India

The Rajput period was an era of chivalry and feudalism. The Rajputs weakened each other by constant fighting. This allowed the foreigners (Turks) to embark on victorious campaigns using duplicity and deceit wherever military strength failed against Rajputs.

Mohammad Ghori defeated Prithviraj Chauhan, the Tomar ruler of Delhi, at the battle of Tarain in 1192 and left the Indian territories in the charge of his deputy, Qutubudin (reign – 1206 – 1210), who had started life as a slave. Khiljis, Tughlaqs, Sayyids and Lodis followed and this period is known as the Sultanate. When the power of the Sultans declined, the outlying provinces once again became important and the process of Hindu Islamic synthesis continued almost without any interruption.

Babur (reign – 1526-30), the founder of the Mughal Empire in India, was the descendant of Timur as well as Changez Khan. Ousted by his cousins, he came to India and defeated Ibrahim, the last Lodi Sultan in 1526 at the First Battle of Panipat. There was a brief interruption to Mughal rule when Babur’s son Humayun (reign – 1530-40) was ousted from Delhi, by Sher Shah, an Afghan chieftain.

Sher Shah (reign – 1540-55), assumed power in the imperial capital for a short while. He is remembered as the builder of the Grand Trunk road that spanned the distance from Peshawar to Patna and also one who introduced major reforms in the revenue system, gratefully retained by the Mughals.

It was Babur’s grandson Akbar (reign – 1556-1605), who consolidated political power and extended his empire over practically the whole of north India and parts of the south. Jahangir (reign – 1605-27) who succeeded Akbar was a pleasure loving man of refined taste. Shah Jahan (1628-58) his son, ascended the throne next. Shah Jahan’s fame rests on the majestic buildings he has left behind – the Taj Mahal, the Red Fort and the Jama Masjid. Aurangzeb (reign – 1658-1707) was the last Mughal ruler.

In western India, Shivaji (1637-80) had forged the Marathas into an efficient military machine and given them a sense of national identity. They adopted guerrilla tactics to maul the Mughals and put a severe drain on their economic resources.

The contenders for political supremacy in the 17th and 18th Centuries included besides the Marathas, the Sikhs in Punjab and Hyder Ali (reign – 1721 – 1782) in Mysore. Tipu Sultan (reign – 1782 – 1799) – Hyder Ali’s son and successor allied himself with the French against the British and strove to introduce the latest technical knowledge from Europe.

Modern India

Vasco da Gama when landed at Calicut, sailing via the Cape of Good Hope in 1498, marked the beginning of the European era in Indian history. The Portuguese by the 16th Century had already established their colony in Goa.

In the next century, India was visited by a large number of European travellers – Italians, Englishmen, Frenchmen and Dutchmen. They were drawn to India for different reasons. Some were traders, others adventurers, and quite a few fired by the missionary zeal to find converts to Christianity. Eventually England, France, the Netherlands and Denmark, floated East India Companies.

During the late 16th and the 17th Centuries, these companies competed with each other fiercely. By the last quarter of the 18th Century the English had vanquished all others and established themselves as the dominant power in India. The British administered India for a period of about two centuries and brought about revolutionary changes in the social, political and the economic life of the country.

Once the British had consolidated their power, commercial exploitation of the natural resources and native labour became ruthless. By the middle of the 19th Century arrogant exploitation of the people had tried the patience of the Indians to the limit.

The six decades between the end of the “mutinous” war of 1857 – 59 and the conclusion of First World War saw both the peak of British imperial power in India and the birth of nationalist agitation against it. With increasing intrusion of aliens in their lives, a group of middle class Indians formed the Indian National Congress (1885) – a society of English educated affluent professionals – to seek reforms from the British.

The anticolonial struggle became truly a mass movement with the arrival of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (1869 – 1948) in 1915 who had suffered great humiliation in South Africa due to the policy of racial discrimination and later commited to rid his motherland of the ills of foreign rule.

Successive campaigns had the effect of driving the British out of India in 1947, but with independence came the independence of the country into Pakistan.

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

What is an Allergy?

Source from : http://www.allergyuk.org/what-is-an-allergy/what-is-an-allergy

What is an Allergy?

An allergy is the response of the body’s immune system to a normally harmless substance, such as pollen, food, or house dust mite. The body has an automatic reaction to what it sees as a threat, and while in most people these substances pose no problem, in those with allergies the immune system identifies them as a threat and produces an inappropriate response to them. Allergies are classified into IgE mediated and non-IgE mediated allergies.

Allergies first start when cells in the immune system wrongly identify an everyday, normally harmless, substance as an attacker. In IgE mediated allergies the immune system then begins to produce begins to produce a class of antibodies known as IgE, specific for that particular allergen, which will later alert the fighting cells (mast cells and basophils) within the immune system every time that this substance is encountered. The mast cells bind with the IgE antibodies so that they can identify the allergen next time it comes into contact with the body. This is called sensitisation, and at this stage there are no physical symptoms of an allergy.

Mast cells are present in all the tissue that is in contact with the external environment, such as the skin, nose, eyes, mouth, throat, stomach and gut. The next time that the same allergen is encountered the mast cells identify it as an intruder and produce histamine and other chemicals. It is the release of the histamine and other chemicals and their effect on the body that cause allergic symptoms.

An allergy can therefore cause anything from a runny nose, or itchy eyes and mouth, to skin rash and gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal discomfort (‘tummy ache’) and vomiting. Severe allergies can cause breathing problems or a drop in blood pressure. Severe allergic reactions are also known as anaphylaxis, and can be life-threatening.

In prolonged exposure to allergens the immune system also employs additional fighting cells to attack the invading substance. These release chemical substances that cause further discomfort to allergy sufferers and increase the severity of their symptoms.

However, the immune system can still respond to allergens without the production of the IgE antibody. In non-IgE mediated allergies multiple cells may inappropriately react to the presence of an allergen, and can cause many of the same symptoms as IgE mediated allergies.

Symptoms of IgE mediated allergies occur rapidly and soon after exposure to the allergen, whereas in non-IgE mediated allergies symptoms tend to appear much later after contact with the allergen. In these cases it can be much harder to identify which allergen is causing the problem.

Allergy is widespread and affects approximately one in four of the population in the UK at some time in their lives. Each year the numbers are increasing by 5%, with as many as half of all those affected being children.

Allergy Testing: Tips to Remember

Source from: http://www.aaaai.org/conditions-and-treatments/library/at-a-glance/allergy-testing.aspx

If you have an allergy, your body is reacting to something you inhaled, touched or ate. The substances that trigger an allergic reaction are called allergens. Reactions to these allergens range from annoying to life-threatening.

Many people with untreated allergy symptoms aren’t aware of how much better they can feel once their symptoms are properly diagnosed and managed by an allergist / immunologist, often referred to as an allergist.

An allergist is a pediatrician or internist with at least two additional years of specialized training and is the best physician to diagnose and treat allergies and asthma.

What Are the Benefits of Allergy Testing?
Allergy tests, combined with the knowledge of your allergy specialist to interpret them, can give precise information about what you are as well as what you are not allergic to. Allergy testing should always occur along with a physical examination and a discussion about your past and current symptoms.

For instance, if you wheeze when you are at home and don’t know why, you don’t have to get rid of your cat if your allergy testing shows you are allergic to dust mites but not cats. With this information, you and your allergist can develop a treatment plan to manage or even get rid of your symptoms.

Should I Be Tested?
Testing done by an allergist is generally safe and effective for adults and children of all ages. Symptoms which usually prompt the allergist to perform skin testing include:
• Respiratory: itchy eyes, nose or throat; nasal congestion, runny nose, watery eyes, chest congestion, cough or wheezing
• Skin: hives, itchiness or atopic dermatitis
• Abdominal: cramping and diarrhea or constipation consistently after eating certain foods
• Severe reactions to stinging insect stings (other than swelling at the site of the sting)
• Anaphylaxis (an-a-fi-LAK-sis): a serious allergic reaction that affects many parts of the body at the same time

Most symptoms are caused by one or more of these allergens:
• Dust mites (tiny bugs you can’t see) that live in your home
• Proteins from furry pets, which are found in their dander, saliva and urine (it’s actually not their hair)
• Molds in your home or in the air outside
• Tree, grass and weed pollen
• Cockroach body parts and droppings

More serious allergic reactions can be caused by:
• Venom from the stings of bees, wasps, yellow jackets, fire ants and other stinging insects
• Certain foods
• Natural rubber latex
• Certain medications and drugs

Types of Allergy Tests
Different allergens bother different people, so your allergist will determine which test is the best for you.

The allergen extracts or vaccines used in allergy tests performed by allergists meet U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requirements, making them safe for use.

Skin Test

This type of testing is the most common and is relatively painless. A very small amount of certain allergens is put into your skin by making a small indentation or “prick” on the surface of your skin.

If you have allergies, just a little swelling will occur where the allergen(s) which you are allergic to was introduced. If you are allergic to ragweed pollen but not to cats, only the ragweed allergen will cause a little swelling or itching. The spot where the cat allergen was applied will remain normal.

You don’t have to wait long to find out what is triggering your allergies. Reactions occur within about 15 minutes. And you generally won’t have any other symptoms besides the small hives where the tests were done, which go away within 30 minutes. If your prick skin tests are negative but your physician still suspects you might have allergies, more sensitive intradermal tests will be used in which a small amount of allergen is injected within the skin.

A skin test has to be done in an allergist’s office to minimize the risk of rare side effects.

Challenge Tests

In a challenge test, a very small amount of an allergen is inhaled or taken by mouth. Challenges are done mostly with potential food or medication allergies, and it is very important that they be supervised by an allergist.

Blood Tests

This test involves drawing blood, so results are not available as rapidly as with skin tests. Blood tests are generally used when skin tests might be unsafe or won’t work, such as if you are taking certain medications, or have a skin condition that may interfere with skin testing.

When to Proceed with Caution
There are methods of allergy testing that the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI) believes are not useful or effective. These include: immunologlobulin G (IgG) testing, massive allergy screening tests done in supermarkets or drug stores, applied kinesiology (allergy testing through muscle relaxation), cytotoxicity testing, skin titration (Rinkel method), provocative and neutralization (subcutaneous) testing or sublingual provocation.

Healthy Tips
• Most people with nagging allergy symptoms don’t realize how much better they can feel once their symptoms are properly diagnosed and treated.
• Allergy testing analyzed by an allergist can pinpoint what you are allergic to.
• Testing done by an allergist is generally safe and practically painless.
• Some new forms of testing, such as allergy screenings performed at supermarkets or drug stores, sound good but can actually be harmful.

Feel Better. Live Better.
An allergist / immunologist, often referred to as an allergist, is a pediatrician or internist with at least two additional years of specialized training in the diagnosis and treatment of problems such as allergies, asthma, autoimmune diseases and the evaluation and treatment of patients with recurrent infections, such as immunodeficiency diseases.

The right care can make the difference between suffering with an allergic disease and feeling better. By visiting an allergist, you can expect an accurate diagnosis, a treatment plan that works and educational information to help you manage your disease.

The AAAAI’s Find an Allergist / Immunologist service is a trusted resource to help you find a specialist close to home.

Posted in Uncategorized | 2 Comments

Dear Readers

This is my First entry in to the blog. I want to become a writer, that’s why i,m starting this blog. So please accept anything i write wrongly. I don’t like to write anything intentional. Thank you readers.

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Hello world!

Welcome to WordPress.com! This is your very first post. Click the Edit link to modify or delete it, or start a new post. If you like, use this post to tell readers why you started this blog and what you plan to do with it.

Happy blogging!

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment