Indus Valley civilizations covering approx 1/2 million miles of Northern Indian subcontinent is the largest ancient civilization in history till now. Since both stone and copper are used it is a chalcolithicivil.The Indus Valley people are highly artistic and skilled.Their chief features include a highly organized urban setup and a strong economy.
The IVC economy is flourishing with extensive cultivation of wheat, barley. The Indus river is used for transport, weights are all very accurate and highly standardized and traders have own personalised seals.
Harappa Civilisation – Fashion
The exact origins of the IVC people is disputed but appears to belong to four ethnic types including the Protoaustioloids, Mediterraneans, Mongoloids and Alpines. People enjoy a comfortable life with a variety of luxuries like ornaments in agate and gold, cosmetics (kajal) and elaborate toys for children. Painting on pottery is skillful and covers various themes while small sculptures in terracotta (animals, toys), soft stone (bearded man) and metal jewels abound.
The greatest artistic skill is in the seals. These engravings of animals, flowers and other symbols have artistic, religious and economic value .
Harappa Civilisation – Town Planning
The city of Mohenjo Daro is testimony to the town planning activities of the IVC. Cities are divided into lower dwellings & the Citadel which houses important buildings. The streets form a grid system and are of modulated width. Bricks of fixed sizes are used for building while stone and wood are also used.Municipal authorities who are responsible for the whole of the valley also regularly maintain a highly efficient drainage system.Buildings in the lower area are rather monotonous, being mainly functional rather than decorative. But many houses are 2 storeyed.
Harappa Civilisation – Architecture
Great Bath: Mohenjo Daro has a sophisticated system of water supply & drainage and its brickwork, is highly functional and the amazing part of it is – that it is completely waterproof. The granaries are also intelligently constructed, with strategic airducts and platform are divided into units.
The Dock at Lothal is to be used for inland & foreign trade.
Harappa Civilisation – Religion
The culture and religion of the IVC overlap and perhaps repetitive symbols such as the pipal leaf and swastika have religious significance. Human dieties include a “proto type of Shiva” and a mother goddess. Animal symbols such as the bull and unicorn and those of tree spirits and water dieties are also common.
These are images from the Harappan culture which existed in the Indus River Valley and which reached its peak around 2600 BC, shortly after the development of urban societies in Mesopotamia and Egypt. Additional information can be found on the ” India and South Asia ” Chronology.